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and it was partly in response to the perceived proliferation of poor quality patents that Congress and the PTO established a regulatory system unique in all Adidas Superstar Grey Suede of administrative law that restricts who may draft, or patents. One aspect of that regulatory system is the written examination that is an essential part of the process of registering to prosecute patents.
des documents gathered through Freedom of Information Act requests and from private collectors, as well as raw data and data summaries. If you are interested in publishing data or documents related to your own scholarly work, please contact me. Abstract: This empirical article considers the issue of patent quality through a lens focused on the regulation of the patent bar. Poor quality patents were a source of intense public concern in the late 1800s and early 1900s, Adidas Superstar Brown Suede
for patent quality and the delivery of professional patent services. Patent and Trademark Office ( these concerns have intensified in recent years. In response, the PTO has identified patent quality as a critical institutional issue requiring reforms, including tightened regulation of the patent bar. Most recently, Congress passed the most sweeping patent legislation in at least half a cen.
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This article describes the evolution of the format, content, and administration of the patent registration exam, from its first administration in 1934 to the present day. That description is based on my review of seventy nine registration exams that I gathered through Freedom of Information Act requests to the PTO and from private collectors. The story this collection tells is that for the first few decades of its history, the exam was an increasingly rigorous and comprehensive assessment. But as the twentieth century came to a close, the PTO implemented a number of changes to the exam that have had the effect of undermining its validity, reliability, and fairness.
failures in terms of modern psychometric standards that apply to professional licensure exams and discuss their ramifications Adidas Superstar Maroon Stripes